What is Reconciliation and the Virtual DOM (VDOM)?

December 15, 2023

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In our last post we introduced how a modern frontend framework like React, Angular, or Vue are able to make your JavaScript state easier to sync to the DOM using "Reactivity".

Towards the end of that post, I touched on how each of these frameworks' mechanisms for reactivity work under-the-hood through external links.

One of those mechanisms used by frameworks like React and Vue is called the "Virtual DOM" (Also known as the "VDOM") and use a process called "Reconciliation" to reflect the changes made to this "VDOM" to the real DOM.

Let's take a look at how this works in practical terms.

What is the Virtual DOM (VDOM)?

In a broad stroke, the virtual DOM (VDOM) is a reflection of the code you've written in your framework that eventually gets mirrored to the DOM. This is in order to make sure that updates to your JavaScript state are duplicated into the DOM via reactivity.

Too terminology heavy? No problem, here's an example.

Let's say that you have a bit of HTML:


This might create a DOM tree that looks similar to the following:

A tree of elements starting with the ul at the top, three lis below, and each li has a p element

If you need a refresher on how the DOM works, check out our post on the topic.

Similarly, if you write the following JSX:

const App = () => {	return (        <ul>            <li><p>One</p></li>            <li><p>One</p></li>            <li><p>One</p></li>        </ul>	)}

You'll end up with a VDOM that mirrors the markup you've written in JSX. This JSX is then reflected to the DOM itself:

The process of how these changes are mirrored is called "Reconciliation".

What is "Reconciliation"?

Reconciliation is the process of reflecting changes from a frameworks' virtual DOM into the DOM via a three-step process:

  1. Listening for changes to the state
  2. Diffing the changes made to the VDOM
  3. Committing the changes from the VDOM to the DOM
The same DOM tree as before is mirrored both in React's VDOM but in the browser's DOM as well

What is the key property?

While this process of reconciliation might seem simple at first, it can get quite complex. For example, consider how a list might be handled:

import { useState } from 'react';const fakeNames = [  'Gulgowski',  'Johnston',  'Nader',  'Flatley',  'Lemke',  'Stokes',  'Simonis',  'Little',  'Baumbach',  'Spinka',];let id = 0;function createPerson() {  return {    id: ++id,    name: fakeNames[Math.floor(Math.random() * fakeNames.length)],  };}export default function App() {  const [list, setList] = useState([    createPerson(),    createPerson(),    createPerson(),  ]);  function addPersonToList() {    const newList = [...list];    // Insert new friend at random location    newList.splice(      Math.floor(Math.random() * newList.length),      0,      createPerson()    );    setList(newList);  }  return (    <div>      <h1>My friends</h1>      <button onClick={addPersonToList}>Add friend</button>      <ul>        {list.map((person) => (          <li>            <label>              <div>{person.name} notes</div>              <input />            </label>          </li>        ))}      </ul>    </div>  );}

Here, we're storing a list of our friends and allowing the user to add to this list by pressing a button. We even have a little place to store notes about your friends!

But notice what happens to those notes when someone gets added to the start of the list:

See how the note about Little is now assigned to the wrong person.

This is because React needs some way to identify which element is which in a list. By default, this is the index of the list item - which is why our note about Little (whom was originally at the top of the list) is still at the top of the list when someone else is added, despite that not being correct.

Without this default behavior, the inputs inside of the list would all disappear every time the user added to the list, as it wouldn't know to avoid re-rendering the contents of the DOM on existing items:

Without React's default behavior, a list without keys would re-render all list items when a new item is added

To fix this, we just need to explicitly tell React which user is which in the list using a special key property:

<ul>    {list.map((person) => (      <li key={person.id}>        <label>          <div>{person.name} notes</div>          <input />        </label>      </li>    ))}</ul>
When a list is keyed, it knows which item is being added and doesn't need to re-render the other elements in the list


In this series, we've explored how React handles reactivity and how it uses the Virtual DOM and reconciliation to make reactivity work.

These two combined build the foundation for how React works behind the scenes. In the next few posts, starting with "What is server-side rendering (SSR) and static site generation (SSG)", we'll explore how React has gradually evolved past the typical client-side rendering process and into the server.

Eventually, this series will show you how to use React Server Actions in-depth and how you can utilize your React knowledge to become a full-stack developer.

Sound like fun? We hope so! Join us in our Discord and let us know what other topics you'd like to see on the site.

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