Python list comprehensions allow for powerful and readable list mutations. In this article, we'll learn many different ways in how they can be used and where they're most useful.
Python is an incredibly powerful language that’s widely adopted across a wide range of applications. As with any language of sufficient complexity, Python enables multiple ways of doing things. However, the community at large has agreed that code should follow a specific pattern: be “Pythonic”. While “Pythonic” is a community term, the official language defines what they call “The Zen of Python” in PEP 20. To quote just a small bit of it:
Explicit is better than implicit.
Simple is better than complex.
Complex is better than complicated.
Flat is better than nested.
Introduced in Python 2.0 with PEP 202, list comprehensions help align some of these goals for common operations in Python. Let’s explore how we can use list comprehensions and where they serve the Zen of Python better than alternatives.
Let’s say that we want to make an array of numbers, counting up from 0 to 2. We could assign an empty array, use
range to create a generator, then
append to that array using a
numbers = for x in range(3):numbers.append(x)
Alternatively, we could use list comprehension to shorten that to one line of code.
numbers = [x for x in range(3)]
Confused on the syntax? Let’s outline what’s happening token-by-token.
The first and last brackets simply indicate that this is a list comprehension. This is also how I remember that a list comprehension outputs an array - it looks like we’re constructing an array with logic inside.
Second, we have the “x” before the “for”. This is the return value. This means that if we change the comprehension to:
numbers = [x*2 for x in range(3)]
Instead of “0, 1, 2”, we’d get “0, 2, 4”.
Next up, we have a declaration of a
for loop. This comprises of three separate parts:
- “for” - the start of the loop
- “x” - declaring the name of the variable to assign in each iteration
- “in” - denoting the start of listening for the iterator
Finally, we have the
range. This acts as the iterator for the
for loop to iterate through. This can be replaced with anything a
for loop can go through: a list, a tuple, or anything else that implements the iterator interface.
While it might seem counterintuitive to learn a new syntax for manipulating lists, let’s look at what the alternative looks like. Using
map, we can pass an anonymous function (lambda) to multiply a number by 2, pass the
range to iterate through. However, once this is done, we’re left with a
map object. In order to convert this back to a list, we have to wrap that method in
numbers = list(map(lambda x: x*2, range(3)))
Compare this to the list comprehension version:
numbers = [x*2 for x in range(3)]
Looking at the comprehension, it’s significantly more readable at a glance. Thinking back to The Zen of Python, “Simple is better than complex,” list comprehensions seem to be more Pythonic than using
While others might argue that a “for” loop might be easier to read, the Zen of Python also mentions “Flat is better than nested”. Because of this, list comprehensions for simple usage like this are more Pythonic.
Now that we’re more familiar with basic usage of list comprehension, let’s dive into some of it’s more powerful capabilities.
While it might seem like list comprehension is only capable of doing a 1:1 match like
map, you’re actually able to implement logic more similar to
filter to change how many items are in the output compared to what was input.
If we add an
if to the end of the statement, we can limit the output to only even numbers:
even_numbers = [x for x in range(10) if x%2==0] #[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]
This can of course be combined with the changed mutation value:
double_even_numbers = [x*2 for x in range(10) if x%2==0] #[0, 4, 8, 12, 16]
While filtering might seem like the only usage of
if in a list comprehension, you’re able to use them to act as conditionals to return different values from the original.
number_even_odd = ["Even" if x % 2 == 0 else "Odd" for x in range(4)]# ["Even", "Odd", "Even", "Odd"]
Keep in mind, you could even combine this ternary method with the previous filtering
thirds_even_odd = ["Even" if x % 2 == 0 else "Odd" for x in range(10) if x%3==0]# [0, 3, 6, 9] after filtering numbers# ["Even", "Odd", "Even", "Odd"] after ternary to string
If we wanted to expand this code to use full-bodied functions, it would look something like this:
thirds_even_odd = for x in range(10):if x%3==0:if x%2==0:thirds_even_odd.append("Even")else:thirds_even_odd.append("Odd")
While we explained that you’re able to have less items in the output than the input in our “filtering” section, you’re able to do the opposite as well. Here, we’re able to nest two “for” loops on top of each other in order to have a longer output than our initial input.
repeated_list = [y for x in ["", ""] for y in [1, 2, 3]]# [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]
This logic allows you to iterate through two different arrays and output the final value in the nested loop. If we have to rewrite this, we’d write it out as:
repeated_list = for x in ["", ""]:for y in [1, 2, 3]:repeated_list.append(y)
This allows us to nest the loops and keep the logic flat. However, you’ll notice in this example, we’re not utilizing the “x” variable. Let’s change that and do a calculations based on the “x” variable as well:
numbers_doubled = [y for x in [1, 2] for y in [x, x*2]]# 1, 2, 2, 4
Now that we’ve explored using hard-coded arrays to nest loops, let’s go one level deeper and see how we can utilize list comprehensions in a nested manner.
There are two facts that we can combine to provide list comprehension with a super power:
- You can use lists inside of a list comprehension
- List comprehensions returns lists
Combining these leads to the natural conclusion that you can nest list comprehensions inside of other list comprehensions.
For example, let’s take the following logic that, given a two-dimensional list, returns all of the first index items in one list and the second indexed items in a second list.
row_list = [[1, 2], [3,4], [5,6]]indexed_list = for i in range(2):indexed_row = for row in row_list:indexed_row.append(row[i])indexed_list.append(indexed_row)print(indexed_list)# [[1, 3, 5], [2, 4, 6]]
You’ll notice that the first indexed items (
5) are in the first array, and the second indexed items (
6) are in the second array.
Let’s take that and convert it to a list comprehension:
row_list = [[1, 2], [3,4], [5,6]]indexed_list = [[row[i] for row in row_list] for i in range(2)]print(indexed_list)# [[1, 3, 5], [2, 4, 6]]
Something you may have noticed while working with list comprehension is how close some of these operators are to a typical sentence. While basic comprehensions serve this well on their own, they’re advanced by the likes of Python’s other grammatical-style operators. For example, operators may include:
and- Logical “and”
or- Logical “or”
not- Logical “not”
is- Equality check
in- Membership check/second half of
These can be used for great effect. Let’s look at some options we could utilize:
vowels = 'aeiou'word = "Hello!"word_vowels = [letter for letter in word if letter.lower() in vowels]print(word_vowels)# ['e', 'o']
Alternatively we could check for consonants instead, simply by adding one “not”:
word_consonants = [letter for letter in word if letter.lower() not in vowels]# ['H', 'l', 'l']
Finally, to showcase boolean logic, we’ll do a slight contrived check for numbers that mod 2 and 3 perfectly but are not 4:
restricted_number = 4safe_numbers = [x for x in range(6) if (x%2==0 or x%3==0) and x is not restricted_number]# [0, 2, 3]
We’ve covered a lot about list comprehension in Python today! We’re able to build complex logic into our applications while maintaining readability in most situations. However, like any tool, list comprehension can be abused. When you start including too many logical operations to comfortably read, you should likely migrate away from list comprehension to use full-bodied
For example, given this sandbox code pad of a long and messy list comprehension, how can you refactor to remove all usage of list comprehensions? Avoid using
filter or other list helpers, either. Simply use nested
for loops and
if conditionals to match the behavior as it was before.
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